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Communications and Agricultural Education

Communications and Agricultural Education

Kansas State University
1612 Claflin Road
301 Umberger Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506-3402

785-532-5804
785-532-5633 fax

Style, T-U-V-W-Y-Z

teenager — One word, no hyphen.

telephone numbers — See numbers section.

temperatures — Use numerals for temperatures except zero, and use words instead of a minus sign to indicate below zero. The low last night was 10 degrees below zero. If it’s necessary to indicate the scale (Fahrenheit or Celsius), use one of these forms: 75 degrees Fahrenheit, 75 F (note the space and no period after the F). Some scientific writing or tabular material may use the degree symbol. Use the degree symbol (°), not a superscript letter o.

than, then — Use than to introduce a second item for comparison. Joel is taller than Bob. Use then to express an element of time, often sequential. Mary went to the grocery store and then went home.

that, which — Use that for phrases that are essential to the meaning of the sentence and without commas. The house that has red siding is ours. Use which for a phrase that is not essential to the meaning of the sentence, and separate it with commas. The corner house, which has red siding, is ours. If you can leave the phrase out of a sentence without changing the meaning, use which. Otherwise, use that.

they, their— Do not use when referring to a singular person. When trying to avoid using he as a generic pronoun, rewrite the sentence to avoid the problem. Wrong: A visitor should park their car in the north parking lot. Correct: Visitors should park their cars in the north parking lot. See also agreement of pronoun and antecedent entry in the Style Guide section.

time — Report time in either the 12-hour (2 p.m.) or 24-hour (1400 hours) system as appropriate for the publication and audience. Use one system consistently throughout a publication.
For general audiences, use the 12-hour system with noon and midnight instead of 12 p.m. or 12 a.m. to avoid confusion. It is redundant to say 12 noon.
Wrong: 8 a.m. in the morning or 10:30 p.m. at night. This is redundant; stop after a.m. or p.m.
When announcing an event, follow this order: time, date, place. The ice cream social will be at 7:30 p.m. Saturday, Aug. 15, in City Park.

timeline — One word.

Titles and Capitalization

people — In text, identify K-State Research and Extension personnel in a way that clearly conveys position or expertise. Identify administrative personnel by title. John D. Floros, dean of the College of Agriculture and director of K-State Research and Extension; Daryl Buchholz, associate director for extension and applied research; J. Ernest Minton, associate director for research/associate dean for research and graduate programs.
For bylines or lists of names in a program, academic degrees, credentials, and departments are relevant to establishing expertise. If space is a concern, use a short byline at the top of the publication with more information at the end. Bradford Wiles, Ph.D., Associate Professor, School of Family Studies and Human Services; 4-H Youth Development; Sandy Procter, Ph.D., R.D., Department of Human Nutrition.
Identify agents, specialists, and researchers by area of expertise. Do not capitalize job names unless part of a byline or program listing. Robert J. Bauernfeind, entomologist; Donna Martinson, Geary County family and consumer sciences agent.
Capitalize departments or organizations. Department of Communications and Agricultural Education, Food Science Institute.
Do not capitalize terms used in titles that are job descriptions. entomologist, engineer, specialist, agent.
In news releases, indicate the specialist, agent, or researcher is affiliated with K-State Research and Extension. Elaine Johannes, K-State Research and Extension youth development specialist.
Also see the People, Organizations, Acronyms section of this style guide for correct names and titles of the university president, deans, directors, department heads, and other campus leaders. Titles are capitalized there as they would appear in a program or similar listing.
To search for people by name, use the people search on the K-State home page or the Personnel Directory at http://www.ksre.k-state.edu/directory/.

toe the line — The phrase meaning to accept the authority or policies of a particular group is not "tow the line."

toward — No “s” at the end.

T-shirt — Capitalize and hyphenate.

underway — One word is acceptable for all uses.

units — Use standard (lb, in., oz.) or SI units (g, m, mL) as appropriate for the topic and audience, but use
the same system consistently. Present units after a range of values except for degrees and percentages. 3, 5, and 7 g but 10 percent, 20 percent, and 30 percent. (Some scientific styles use the % symbol.) See also the numbers, ranges and measurements sections. Include a space between numbers and units except for degrees and percentages when using the symbol: 5 g, but 10%. Spell out units not preceded by a number. Yield was measured in bushels per acre.

United States — Spell out when standing alone or in a list of countries. I am from the United States.Countries represented included France, Canada, and the United States. Abbreviate as U.S. (not US, unless part of a longer abbreviation such as USDA) when used as a modifier: U.S. agriculture, U.S. citizens.

upside down — Not hyphenated unless used as a modifier. Turn the chairs upside down for storage. You can’t sit in an upside-down chair.

URL — Uniform Resource Locator, the means of identifying different Web addresses. Many addresses follow the form http://www.organizationname.com (or .org or .edu), so it is acceptable to start a written address with www., omitting the http:// at the beginning. Italicize Web addresses in written form: www.ksre.k-state.edu, www.k-state.edu.

use, utilizeUse is appropriate in most cases. Utilize suggests a new, profitable, or practical use.

various, varyingVarious means different or unlike. The three treatments had various results. Use varying to mean changing. The varying cloud cover throughout the day made the photo shoot difficult.

WebCapitalize when referring to the Internet.

webpage, website One word and lowercase (conforms with Kansas State University style).

where — Use to describe a physical place. Incorrect: In months where rainfall was frequent, irrigation was not applied. Correct: In months when rainfall was frequent, irrigation was not applied. Depending on the sentence, better choices might be when, whereas, or which.

while, since — Use to indicate passage of time. Depending on the sentence, better word choices might be although, but, and, whereas, or because.

while, since, although, whereas — While and since indicate time.Since last year, my writing has improved.Although and whereas indicate conditional relationships. Although yield was higher in treatment one, the difference was not significant.

who, whom — Who is used in the subject position of a sentence. Who is it?Whom To whom were you speaking? However,whom often sounds stilted in daily use, and many usage guides consider who to be standard English for both subject and object. Who do you wish to speak to? For formal writing (such as journal articles), follow the traditional rules for usage, but understand that informal language is sometimes acceptable.

whole wheat, whole-wheat — Hyphenate the modifier: whole-wheat flour.

x/×— Do not use the letter x where the multiplication symbol is required (e.g., in mathematical expressions, scientific names, interactions).